1. Ibn Buṭlān, Tacuini sanitatis (Takwīm al-ṣiḥḥa). This, Ibn Buṭlān's (d. c.1068) major work, treats in six parts of the 'Maintenance of Hygiene'; it is highly original both in content and organization. The use of tables is borrowed from astronomical literature, and had a decisive influence on the presentation of medical theories. The Arabic manuscript from which the translation was made is not known, and neither is the translator, although André Simon (Bibliotheca Bacchica) states that it was translated by a Jew named Farangus. 2. Ibn Wāfid, De virtutibus medicinarum et ciborum, translated by Gerard of Cremona. Ibn Wāfid (c.1008–75) was a native of Toledo, where at one time he served as vizier. He was noted for his rational methods of treatment, preferring to treat by diet, or when necessary, simple botanical remedies. This is one of his best-known works, dealing with the properties of medicines and drinks. 3. Al-Kindī, De rerum gradibus. Al-Kindī (c.800–c.870) is known as 'the philosopher of the Arabs', and his numerous works embrace a wide range of subjects. This treatise is on the preparation and posology of medicaments. Woodcut illustrations occupy the lower portions of 40 pages, with lively and accurate representations of cooking and presentation of food, human activities, recreations and hygiene, drugs and meteorology.