Bilingual edition of the "Iggeret Oreḥot 'Olam," a cosmographic and geographic work in thirty chapters (Ferrara, 1524; Venice, 1587). Its author, Abraham ben Mordecai Farissol (Avignon, 1451, - Italy, 1525 or 1526), was the first Jewish scholar who turned his attention to geography. The chief sources Farissol used were Bergomas' "Supplementum" and Amerigo's "Cosmographia." The author speaks of the newly discovered parts of the world, of the wonderful stories told by travelers, and of the Ten Tribes. The "Iggeret" was translated into Latin by Thomas Hyde (1636-1703) under the title of "Tractatus Itinerum Mundi" (Oxford, 1691). Hyde, an extraordinarily talented polyglot, was an English orientalist, Professor of Arabic and Hebrew in the University of Oxford and government interpreter of Oriental languages. His notes to the "Iggeret" include abundant references to Arabic sources. Bound with Farissol's "Itinera mundi," the second part of the volume contains a Latin translation of Wojciech Bobowski's "De Turcarum liturgia," (possibly a translation from the Italian "Serai Enderun cioè Penetrale del Serraglio," London, British Library, ms. Harley 3409). Bobowski, also known as Albertus Bobovius, Ali Bey, or Santurî Ali Ufki (1610–1675), was a Polish musician and dragoman in the Ottoman Empire. He translated the Bible into Ottoman Turkish, composed an Ottoman Psalter, based on the Genevan metrical Psalter, and wrote a grammar of the Ottoman Turkish language. Hyde's Preface offers a short biography of the "Terjuman Bashi," where he praises him as "impensissimus Linguarum amator & assiduus cultor." Subjoined to Bobovius is Hyde's "Castigatio in Angelum a Sancto Joseph." Ange de Saint Joseph (secular name Joseph De la Brosse, 1636-1697), a French missionary friar of the Order of Discalced Carmelites and a linguist himself, had criticized the Persian translation of the Bible in Walton's Bible (published in 1657), to which Hyde had collaborated.